I don't know of a direct way to do that since RPG or CL don't have direct access to SQL Server.
If I had to do that and didn't want to rely on IBM proprietary products like Client Access, I'd write a Java app. The Java app can use Microsoft's type 4 JDBC driver to address the SQL server database on your network. Then I can execute RUNJVA to run my Java app. If I wanted, I could have the Java app read requests from DB2/400 and return results the same way.
I've also successfully used the Sun JdbcOdbcDriver but haven't tried running a stored procedure in SQL server with it.
See the announcement below on how to obtain the right JDBC driver.
Be aware of the limitations on where this driver applies for your environment.
Microsoft Releases SQL Server 2000 Driver for JDBC from Microsoft Corp.
May 1, 2002 ? Microsoft announced the general availability of the Microsoft SQL Server 2000 Driver for Java Database Connectivity (JDBC), which enables users of Java and J2EE to integrate with SQL Server 2000 databases. The release, a Type 4 JDBC driver, allows developers who work in Java environments to incorporate SQL Server data with their Java technology. The driver is available for public download at www.microsoft.com/sql/downloads. Licensed SQL Server 2000 users can download it at no additional charge.
"This is Microsoft listening to customers," the company wrote in a statement. "Customers have asked us for JDBC support."
The Microsoft SQL Server 2000 Driver for JDBC supports the JDBC 2.0 specification and currently is in the final stages of testing for the Sun J2EE CTS, as well as certification on IBM WebSphere and BEA WebLogic. The driver includes such international features as Unicode and DBCS support, and is localized in German and Japanese language versions.
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This was first published in March 2003